Humans are a liquid being w/ solid elements.
Atomic structure - physical laws that govern are the same principles that control how we orbit the sun, but gravity isn't understood
"valance"=capacity to bond
It is a constant expenditure of energy to stay as an organized being - according to laws we should fly into bits

Electrolytes are salts: Na+, Cl-, K+, PO4-
Acids donate hydrogen+ (proton=hydrogen atom)
Bases accept hydrogen+ (hydroxyl ion=IH-)
Acids and bases mixed together=water plus a salt
This is how we left the sea - salty blood
Basis of body electric:nerves and muscles as conductive tissue

C, H2, O
-membrane communication, energy, structural stability, part of RNA/DNA

Structure: always contain N group & COOH (carboxyl)
Function: enzymes, structures, receptors on cell membrane, hormones, some energy
ALL ENZYMES are proteins
20 basic amino acids, 10 are essential
Body can convert proteins into glucose

Structure: free fat, triglyceride or phospholipids
Function: provides 70% of body energy, all membranes, basis of steroid hormones and cholesterol
Saturated= good fuel by betaoxidation (more than 2x ATP of proteins/carbs)
Unsaturated= good for membranes

Nucleic Acids:
Deoxyribose = 5 carbon sugar+
Purine and Pyrimide=nitrogen base
Purines have 2 rings (A,G)
Pyrimides have 1 ring (T, cDNA or uRNA)

Structure=adenine (purine base) + ribose (5c sugar) + 3 phosphates
(high energy bonds)
Function is energy currency

Steroid hormones have no membrane receptors - only nuclear membrane
Steroids pass easiily through membranes and effect whole body

Brain takes 1/5 of the blood supply, 15% of glucose @ any time


prototypical cell

insulin levels take 20-40 minutes top produce necessary proteins
the motor output is protein synthesis for wanting something sweet

myoglobin-=alternative to hemoglobin that exists in muscular tissue


Albumin - most common protein found in plasma, synthesized by the liver
Capillary is the site of ALL nutrient or waste transfer - all endothelial tissue
endothelial level=flat, 1 cell thick squamous epithelial
Almost 100% of cells surface of red blood cell touches capillary walls for more oxygenation
Inflammatory action constricts capillary sphincters = very energetically (chemically) expensive.

NA/K pump=membrane protein

3 cell types-
labile-divide frequently: connective tissue, epithelial
stable-divide only under duress
permanent-never undergo mitosis:neurons and skeletal

"S Phase" of division (replication of DNA) is completely separate from mitosis - enters prophase w/ 46 pairs that split in half
mitosis causes the arrest of all other cell functions
mitosis always takes 1 hour regardless of cell type
interphase ends when the centrides divide and dissolves the nuclear envelope

fastest growing tissues=1 in 100 at any given time, slowest cancer cells duplicate @ 1 in 100


inner membranes of the small intestine are broken down and replaced every 4 days
lung/kidney energetic connection in western model
bladder holds 400-800 ml
Carotin hardens skin cells and make it waterproof
plasma cells always secrete immunoglobins in mucous
mucous is packed w/ proteins, sugars, ect = kidney/spittle connection
vitamin C produces collagen that keeps skin/teeth together, hence scurvy

acne=bacteria feeding in sebaceous glands which undergo holocrine
whiteheads=sebum that's sterile but held in the dermis

all bones begin as cartilage
bones set solid (joints formed) ~ age 12 - before that joints physically separate and are not in place

most common protein in the body=COLLAGEN
eye=external portion of the brain, fat pad behind the eyeball


Acidic pH promotes osteoclastsharrd boiled/poached eggs are much better than fried, scambled ok
lecithin levels even out cholesterol
OJ w/ calcium & vitamin D has a better uptake than in milk
eurythrocytes- red blood cells, homogeneous, anucleate, 2 million made/second.
leukocytes- white blood cells, nonhomogeneous

takes 15-20 years to repair 5 years of smoking
chondrin-more dense than collagen, less dense than bone
creditcard taped at three sides to act as a valve in case of collapsing lung

Continuum of matrices:
bone (inside/deepest), periosteum (cartilage), cartilage, perichondrium (dense, regular), Tendon/ligament,Perinysium, endonysium, surrounds every cell

SOMA (pharmaceutical) - can render a person neuroleptic
Arnica- suppliment and topical good for sprains
Brain eating can cause Kuro (dementia)
all cerebral activity occurs on surface of the brain - everything deep to that are axons making connections.